ViewPager2 under the Hood

Today, Google released the first alpha of ViewPager2. I had been looking at the code as it was developed in the Android X repository for a while now, and wanted to write a bit about how it works.


ViewPager2 builds on top of the versatile RecyclerView to make ViewPager2 a worthy successor to ViewPager.

Per the release notes, there are 3 major features that ViewPager2 adds:

  1. RTL support - ViewPager’s never natively supported RTL. In order to support it, you’d either have to manually reverse the pages yourself, or use a library that does it for you.
  2. Vertical orientation - while you could always use a RecyclerView or the like to achieve this, you don’t get the snapping behavior out of the box without implementing it yourself.
  3. notifyDataSetChanged now works - the old ViewPager’s notifyDataSetChanged didn’t recreate the page (a common workaround was to override getItemPosition to return POSITION_NONE).

I’d argue that a 4th major feature is the ability to inter-op adapters with RecyclerViews. The replacement for PagerAdapter is now RecyclerView.Adapter, which means that any RecyclerView adapter can just be used as is within ViewPager2. It also opens the door to using the more granular notifyDataSetChanged type functions (notifyItemInserted, notifyItemChanged, etc) directly or via DiffUtil.

A Quick Sample

Before diving in to how ViewPager2 is implemented, below is a really quick example of how to use it with views. For more detailed samples, please see the the official ViewPager2 Demos.

import android.os.Bundle
import android.view.View
import android.view.ViewGroup
import androidx.recyclerview.widget.RecyclerView
import androidx.viewpager2.widget.ViewPager2

class MainActivity : AppCompatActivity() {
  private val data = intArrayOf(Color.BLUE, Color.RED, Color.GRAY, Color.GREEN, Color.YELLOW)

  override fun onCreate(savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
    val viewPager = findViewById<ViewPager2>(
    // optionally, for vertical orientation
    // viewPager.orientation = ViewPager2.ORIENTATION_VERTICAL
    viewPager.adapter = object : RecyclerView.Adapter<ItemHolder>() {
      override fun onCreateViewHolder(parent: ViewGroup, viewType: Int): ItemHolder {
        val view = View(parent.context)
        // limitation: ViewPager2 pages need to fill the page for now
        view.layoutParams = ViewGroup.LayoutParams(
        return ItemHolder(view)

      override fun getItemCount(): Int = data.size

      override fun onBindViewHolder(holder: ItemHolder, position: Int) {

  class ItemHolder(view: View) : RecyclerView.ViewHolder(view)


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>

ViewPager2 can also be used with fragments, using the FragmentStateAdapter. It has 2 required methods - one for the number of items, and one for getting the item.

For more examples, see the official ViewPager2 Demos that are part of AndroidX.

Under the Hood

In order to get an overview of how ViewPager2 is built, let’s start by going back in history to the very first commit for it in AndroidX. The initial version of ViewPager2 was only 175 lines long and serves to give us a good idea of how it is built and how it works.

ViewPager2’s Initial Commit

View Construction

ViewPager2 is a ViewGroup. All of its constructors call an initialize method, which creates a RecyclerView, sets its layout manager to a LinearLayoutManager, and attaches the RecyclerView to itself. It also creates and attaches a PageSnapHelper (this is what supports page snapping).

Measure and Layout

As we’d imagine, there’s an implementation of onMeasure to measure the view. This first asks its internal RecyclerView to measure itself. It adjusts the width and height to add any padding set on the ViewPager2, and uses the maximum between the calculated width/height and the suggested minimum width and height (these suggestions come either from the background (if one is set, and in this case, one isn’t set), or from android:minWidth and android:minHeight if they are defined).

There’s also an onLayout, which lays out the internal RecyclerView while respecting padding (though a note in the source says that this may potentially be delegated to the RecyclerView itself one day to avoid page transition bugs) and setting a gravity of start and top.


There are 2 remaining functions in the initial ViewPager2 implementation that remain in the current master version - onViewAdded, which is called when a view is added to the ViewGroup - this currently throws an exception (with a TODO to add support for decor views).

Finally, there is a setAdapter - this just sets the adapter on the RecyclerView. (In the old initial commit, this wrapped the Adapter with one that ensured that the width and height of the child are MATCH_PARENT. Today, this enforcement is in an enforceChildFillListener method, which it does via a RecyclerView.OnChildAttachStateChangeListener).

(Note - for completion’s sake, the initial commit also had a method to addOnScrollListener, which was just handed down to the RecyclerView).

ViewPager2 Today

Today, ViewPager2 supports many of ViewPager’s APIs that weren’t supported in the initial commit. The vast majority of the new code in today’s ViewPager2 is for adding support for:

  • saving and restoring state
  • setting orientation (this just passes the parameter to the LinearLayoutManager).
  • support for getCurrentItem and setCurrentItem
  • ability to add an OnPageChangeCallback (similar to ViewPager.OnPageChangeListener from the legacy ViewPager).
  • setPageTransformer, which lets transformations be applied to each page while it is scrolling.

Saving and Restoring state

In onSaveInstanceState, the ViewPager2 saves:

  • the id of the RecyclerView - the RecyclerView’s id was set in the constructor to ViewCompat.generateViewId, which generates an id that won’t clash with existing values.
  • the orientation
  • the current item position
  • whether or not a scroll was in progress - this is done by asking the LayoutManager for the first completely visible item on the screen and comparing it to the current item.
  • an optional Parcelable containing the adapter’s state if the adapter is a StatefulAdapter.

A method called onDispatchRestoreInstanceState is what ultimately calls restoreInstanceState during restoration. This method gets the state as a Parcelable from its parent and reads the old RecyclerView’s id. It then replaces the mapping for the RecyclerView’s data from its old id to its current id (since the id is generated by the constructor). This allows the new RecyclerView to restore using the old one’s state.

restoreInstanceState restores the saved values variables back. If the ViewPager2 died while it was scrolling, it temporarily nulls out the OnPageChangeCallback to avoid propagating events. It then posts a message to set the callback back, and calls a scrollToPosition on the RecyclerView to go back to the restored item position. The removing and re-adding of the callback is done to avoid sending out a scroll event when this happens.

Translating RecyclerView scrolls to ViewPager2 events

Like its predecessor, ViewPager2 provides support for getting and setting the current page. How does this work, especially when RecyclerView has no such method for getCurrentItem or setCurrentItem?

RecyclerView allows us to set an RecyclerView.OnScrollListener. This interface has 2 methods:

// newState is one of RecyclerView's constants for:
void onScrollStateChanged(RecyclerView recyclerView, int newState);
void onScrolled(RecyclerView recyclerView, int dx, int dy);

ViewPager2 has a helper class called ScrollEventAdapter, which maps calls from RecyclerView.OnScrollListener to calls to OnPageChangeCallback (the ViewPager2 equivalent of ViewPager.OnPageChangeListener). OnPageChangeCallback has 3 methods:

public void onPageScrolled(int position,
                           float positionOffset,
                           @Px int positionOffsetPixels);
public void onPageSelected(int position);
// state is one of ViewPager2's constants for:
public void onPageScrollStateChanged(@ScrollState int state)

The ScrollEventAdapter class maintains 3 values in an internal class called ScrollEventValues

  1. position (the adapter position of the first visible item in the RecyclerView - gotten using LayoutManager’s findFirstVisibleItemPosition)
  2. the offset in pixels (this is just “how much of this view is off the screen?”)
  3. the offset as a percentage (dividing the offset by the width for horizontal pagers and by the height for vertical ones).

With a method to calculate the ScrollEventValues, the class can then map the RecyclerView scrolled events into the corresponding ViewPager2 page events.

This serves 2 main purposes:

  1. to maintain the currentItem (for getCurrentItem and setCurrentItem) by means of listening to this class internally, and
  2. to dispatch these events to listeners who call registerOnPageChangeCallback. This also allows PageTransformer to work.

Scrolling (and smooth scrolling) are implemented by calling scrollToPosition or smoothScrollToPosition on the RecyclerView (for longer jumps, it first scrolls to a nearby position and then smooth scrolls to the actual desired position).

Page Transformations

The ViewPager2 allows for transforming pages when they scroll by passing in a PageTransformer through the setPageTransformer method. This method is fired on every onPageScrolled event. The PageTransformer gets called with 2 parameters - the View, and the position - the position is a value of where between -1 and 1 relative to the current page position. 0 means this is the current page. 1 means the page is one entire page to the right, and -1 means the page is one entire page to the left.

So if we scroll from page 1 to page 2 (in an LTR, horizontal ViewPager2), the PageTransformer for page 1 is fired for decreasing values between 0 and -1, and page 2 is fired for increasing values between 1 and 0. If we go the other way (from page 2 back to page 1), page 1 has its transformer fire for values between -1 and 0, and page 2 has its transformer fired for values between 0 and 1.

Here’s a simple example of fading the outgoing page out and the incoming view in:

    val transformer = ViewPager2.PageTransformer { page, position ->
      page.apply {
        page.alpha = 0.25f + (1 - Math.abs(position))


Here’s a demo of this in action (animated gif):

A quick note about RTL

The RTL support for ViewPager2 comes directly from the existing LinearLayoutManager used by a good portion of RecyclerViews. Like LinearLayout, LinearLayoutManager will draw the views backwards if the RTL flag is set.


ViewPager2 is a nice replacement for ViewPager built on top of RecyclerView. In addition to the support for RTL, the fact that the adapters are RecyclerView.Adapters is amazing - not just for the fact that it’s easy to inter-op with RecyclerViews, but for the ability to use specific methods like notifyItemChanged, notifyItemInserted, etc directly. DiffUtil can also be used with ViewPager2.

There are some limitations mentioned on the release page, but hopefully these will be resolved as time goes on (especially as this is just the first alpha).

As for features, I hope that one day, ViewPager2 will support more of RecyclerView’s functionality, like ItemDecorations (useful for drawing gaps between pages, for example).

Emulator Snapshots Save a lot of Time

One of the features of the Android emulator that I knew about but never used until recently is snapshots. The snapshot feature lets the emulator save its current state (including the state of the file system, installed apps, etc) and lets the developer reload it again at any time.

This feature is amazing for testing upgrades and fixing upgrade related issues. Install the old version of the app, and do any required setup (preferences that need to be set, data that needs to be added, etc). Take a snapshot. Install the new version and test or debug. Need to go back to the old version? Just load the snapshot again and you’re back to exactly where you left off when you took the snapshot.

This feature could be useful for other things - for example, one could have a snapshot logged into account A and another logged into account B. This makes it easy to test features on different account types without having to log out and log in again.

AppCompat View Inflation

Today, it’s likely that most newly written Activitys extend AppCompatActivity. The fact that it adds backwards compatibility has made life significantly easier for us as Android developers. Yet, how does it work? Specifically, how does it replace a TextView in a xml layout with an AppCompatTextView? This post aims to do a deep dive into one aspect of AppCompatActivity - view inflation.


In Android, we often write our layouts in xml files. These are bundled with our app (converted to binary xml for performance reasons by aapt/2), and are then inflated at runtime by using LayoutInflater.

There are two neat little methods present on a LayoutInflater called setFactory and setFactory2 - this method’s documentation says:

Attach a custom Factory interface for creating views while using this LayoutInflater. This must not be null, and can only be set once; after setting, you can not change the factory. This is called on each element name as the xml is parsed. If the factory returns a View, that is added to the hierarchy. If it returns null, the next factory default onCreateView(View, String, AttributeSet) method is called.

Note that Factory2 implements Factory, so for any api 11+ apps, setFactory2 is what should be used. This essentially gives us a way to intercept the creation of every tag (view element) in xml. Let’s see this in practice:

class FactoryActivity : Activity() {

  override fun onCreate(savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
    val layoutInflater = LayoutInflater.from(this)
    layoutInflater.factory2 = object : LayoutInflater.Factory2 {
      override fun onCreateView(parent: View?,
                                name: String,
                                context: Context,
                                attrs: AttributeSet): View? {
        if (name == "TextView") {
          return RedTextView(context, attrs)
        return null

      override fun onCreateView(name: String,
                                context: Context,
                                attrs: AttributeSet): View? {
        return onCreateView(null, name, context, attrs)


Here, we’re just setting a Factory2 on the LayoutInflater for this Context. Whenever we find a TextView, we’re replacing it with our own subclass.

RedTextView is just a subclass of TextView with an extra setBackgroundColor call to set the background to red at the end of each constructor:

class RedTextView : AppCompatTextView {
  constructor(context: Context) : super(context) { initialize() }

  constructor(context: Context, attrs: AttributeSet?) :
    super(context, attrs) { initialize() }

  constructor(context: Context, attr: AttributeSet?, defStyleAttr: Int) :
    super(context, attr, defStyleAttr) { initialize() }

  private fun initialize() { setBackgroundColor(Color.RED) }

In this case, factory.xml looks like:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<LinearLayout xmlns:android=""


		android:text="Hello" />

		android:text="World" />

	  android:text="Welcome" />

When we run this and use Android Studio’s Layout Inspector, we find that all our TextViews are now RedTextViews - awesome!

AppCompatActivity and Factory2

If we just change the FactoryActivity above to extend AppCompatActivity instead, we’ll see that our TextViews are, indeed, RedTextViews, but the Button we added remains a Button instead of becoming an AppCompatButton. Why?

The first two lines of AppCompatActivity’s onCreate are:

final AppCompatDelegate delegate = getDelegate();

getDelegate() returns the correct delegate depending on the api version (AppCompatDelegateImplV14, AppCompatDelegateImplV23, AppCompatDelegateImplN, etc). The next method installs the view factory - this code calls setFactory2 when layoutInflater.getFactory returns null - it does nothing otherwise.

The fact that our Button does not change now makes sense since AppCompatActivity doesn’t install its Factory when one is already installed.

Note that the setFactory2 in FactoryActivity is before super.onCreate - if it isn’t, setFactory2 will throw an exception when the parent is AppCompatActivity, since it sets its own Factory2, and as the documentation says, “This must not be null, and can only be set once; after setting, you can not change the factory.”

Playing nice with AppCompatActivity’s Factory2

So what if I want to have my own Factory2, but I also want to let AppCompatActivity run its Factory? Let’s look at some ways to do this.

Delegating to AppCompatDelegate

Inside of AppCompatDelegate, we can see a method called createView (not to be confused with onCreateView that is implementing Factory and Factory2):

 * This should be called from a
 * {@link android.view.LayoutInflater.Factory2 LayoutInflater.Factory2}
 * in order to return tint-aware widgets.
 * <p>
 * This is only needed if you are using your own
 * {@link android.view.LayoutInflater LayoutInflater} factory, and have
 * therefore not installed the default factory via {@link #installViewFactory()}.
public abstract View createView(@Nullable View parent,
                                String name,
                                @NonNull Context context,
                                @NonNull AttributeSet attrs);

With this information, we can just change our setFactory2 call to delegate to AppCompatDelegate’s when we don’t want to handle it:

  override fun onCreate(savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
    val layoutInflater = LayoutInflater.from(this)
    layoutInflater.factory2 = object : LayoutInflater.Factory2 {
      override fun onCreateView(parent: View?,
                                name: String,
                                context: Context,
                                attrs: AttributeSet): View? {
        if (name == "TextView") {
          return RedTextView(context, attrs)

        // delegate to AppCompatActivity's getDelegate()
        return delegate.createView(parent, name, context, attrs)

      override fun onCreateView(name: String,
                                context: Context,
                                attrs: AttributeSet): View? {
        return onCreateView(null, name, context, attrs)


Running this, we indeed see that our TextViews have become RedTextViews, and that our Button has become an AppCompatButton - success!

Overriding the viewInflaterClass

If we look at createView from AppCompatDelegate, we’ll see code that it instantiates an AppCompatViewInflater using reflection if one is not already set. The specific class it instantiates comes from R.styleable.AppCompatTheme_viewInflaterClass, which is set to AppCompatViewInflater by default.

By setting the theme for FactoryActivity to something like:

<style name="FactoryTheme" parent="Theme.AppCompat.Light.DarkActionBar">
  <item name="viewInflaterClass"></item>

We can have AppCompatDelegate use our subclass of AppCompatViewInflater:

class CustomViewInflater : AppCompatViewInflater() {
  override fun createTextView(context: Context, attrs: AttributeSet) =
    RedTextView(context, attrs)

Google’s Material Design Components project actually uses this approach to override the creation of each Button with a corresponding MaterialButton that subclasses AppCompatButton, as can be seen here.

This approach is very powerful, since it allows an app that uses a library like Material Design Components to get tinting and material design buttons by doing nothing except setting the proper theme.

Note that AppCompatViewInflater also provides a fallback createView method that can be overridden to override new components that aren’t handled by default (it is called if the base AppCompatViewInflater doesn’t handle the particular widget type).

Custom LayoutInflater

A third way to do this is by having your own LayoutInflater that is always returned when getSystemService is called via a ContextThemeWrapper (installed by overwriting attachBaseContext on the Activity). This custom LayoutInflater can then wrap setFactory2 method calls to call the underlying Factory2, and to call its own logic before or after. This method is used by the ViewPump library (which is where I learned about it).

Implementation Details

This section covers some of the nitty gritty implementation details of AppCompatDelegate’s way of view inflation (since I found it pretty interesting and learned a few things along the way here).


We’d expect the Factory2’s onCreateView method just to call directly to createView (mentioned in Delegating to AppCompatDelegate above). In fact, it does do that, but looking at the code, there’s an extra bit - a call to callActivityOnCreateView. In AppCompatDelegateImplV14 this looks like this:

  View callActivityOnCreateView(View parent,
                                String name,
                                Context context,
                                AttributeSet attrs) {
    // On Honeycomb+, Activity's private inflater factory will handle
    // calling its onCreateView(...)
    return null;

Looking at LayoutInflater’s source, we can see that part of createViewFromTag tries to get the view from the factory, and, upon not finding it, falls back to mPrivateFactory, and finally falling back to trying to create the class that the tag refers to. mPrivateFactory is set by Activity in its constructor. (Interestingly enough, it is this mPrivateFactory that is responsible for inflating fragments as seen here).

On Gingerbread through Honeycomb, LayoutInflater doesn’t have a notion of mPrivateFactory to allow the Activity to run its own fallback logic for creating views. Consequently, callActivityOnCreateView calls this method to allow that code to run on older APIs. This is mostly irrelevant now since AppCompat is now 14+ anyway, but an interesting thing I learned from this is about Window.Callback.

Window.Callback is an API from a Window back to its caller. This allows the client to intercept key dispatching, panels and menus, etc. It is wrapped by AppCompatActivity to allow it to handle certain events like a key being pressed (to handle menu and back button presses) among other things.


At a high level, createView in AppCompatDelegateImplV9 does 2 things - first, it creates the AppCompatViewInflater or respective subclass reflectively, reading from the theme as mentioned in Overriding the viewInflaterClass above. Second, it asks this inflater to create the view.

createView on AppCompatViewInflater figures out the correct context (taking into account app:theme and android:theme as necessary along with wrapping the context for tinting as necessary), and thereafter creates the proper AppCompat flavored widget, depending on the name passed in (i.e. if it’s a TextView, call createTextView which returns an AppCompatTextview, and so on).

Supporting app:theme

On Lollipop and above, app:theme can be applied to a view to override the theme for that specific view and its children. AppCompat replicates this behavior pre-api 21 by inheriting the context of the parent view (so long as that parent view is not the root view of the layout being inflated).

Before AppCompat tries to inflate the view, it gets the parent context (assuming it should inherit it as per above), and then tries to create a themed context containing android:theme if pre-Lollipop (since Lollipop handles android:theme automatically) and app:theme otherwise. This makes sure the widget is inflated with the correct context.

As an aside, AppCompat will also wrap the context with a TintContextWrapper pre-Lollipop (api 21) if the developer explicitly asked to allow for appcompat vectors to be used from resources (to allow vector drawable usage in things like android:src) via the disabled by default call to setCompatVectorFromResourcesEnabled on AppCompatDelegate.

Creating the View and Fallbacks

Given this information, the code is ready to figure out what view to create - it goes through a list of supported widgets in a switch statement, handling the common views like TextView, ImageView, etc by generating their AppCompat subclasses. If the view is of an unknown type, it calls createView with the correct Context (this method returns null by default, but may have been overwritten by a subclass of AppCompatViewInflater).

If the view is still null at this point, there is a check to see if the view’s original Context is different than its parent’s. This happens when android:theme on the child is different from that on its parent. In order to replicate the behavior of Lollipop and let children inherit the parent’s theme, AppCompat attempts to reflectively create the view with the correct Context in these cases.

After some code for fixing android:onClick behavior for ContextWrappers, the View is returned. If this View is still null, the LayoutInflater will try to inflate it by creating the underlying view.

Summary and use cases

In summary, AppCompatActivity sets a Factory2 on a LayoutInflater to intercept view creation to handle backwards compatibility (adding tinting support to the widgets, handling android:theme, etc). It also keeps this expandable so a developer can have custom handling here as well.

Outside of AppCompat, this trick has been used to accomplish many interesting things - among the first I saw were those done by the (now deprecated) Probe library. Using a combination of Factory2 and a Gradle plugin, a developer could easily enable an OvermeasureInterceptor to identify extra measure passes, or a LayoutBoundsInterceptor to highlight the bounds of a View.

The Calligraphy library uses this trick to make it easy to add fonts to TextViews. It uses the ViewPump library (mentioned earlier), which also lists some potential uses on its recipes wiki.

Finally, Google’s Material Components for Android project installs its own AppCompatViewInflater to replace Buttons with MaterialButtons.

I See Continuous Improvement

I gave my second talk at droidcon dubai this year with my coworker, Oubai Abbasi. We spoke about the importance of continuous integration on Android, along with some of the nice things that it can help catch and that you can do with it. Here is a link to the speakerdeck.

runtime generics in an erasure world

as we already know, generics in java are a compile time concept to help enforce type safety. during compilation, type erasure kicks in, resulting in the underlying bytecode being free of any generics information.

sometimes, however, we need generics information at runtime (such as when we need to convert a json string into its object form, for example). i was curious, how does this work given that types are erased at compile time? in other words, how does gson’s TypeToken class work?

in other words, why does doing this work when there are no generics at runtime (especially when, instead of String, the object type is a custom data object, for example?)

final Type typeToken = new TypeToken<List<String>>(){}.getType();
final String json = "[\"one\", \"two\"]";
final List<String> items = new Gson().fromJson(json, typeToken);

the tldr;

this great answer on StackOverflow answers the question nicely.

in summary, the java language spec specifies what the erased type of parameterized types, nested types, array types, and type variables is. it then says that “the erasure of every other type is the type itself.” TypeToken uses this fact to maintain generics information. as the TypeToken class’s javadoc says:

Forces clients to create a subclass of this class which enables retrieval the type information even at runtime.

stepping back

stepping back a bit, it’s pretty phenomenal seeing the effects of type erasure on bytecode directly. consider these two classes:

import java.util.List;

public class WithGenerics {
   List<String> data;


import java.util.List;

public class WithoutGenerics {
   List data;

if we compile these via javac and then look at the bytecode (using javap -v or using classyshark-bytecode-viewer), we’ll see:

notice that the bytecode is exactly the same for both classes. the only exception is that the type information is present in the signature of the WithGenerics class. if we are to run javap -v, we’ll see that this signature references the constant pool, where the type actually is.

  java.util.List<java.lang.String> data;
    descriptor: Ljava/util/List;
    Signature: #7    // Ljava/util/List<Ljava/lang/String;>;

in contrast, looking at WithoutGenerics, we’d see:

  java.util.List data;
    descriptor: Ljava/util/List;

“the erasure of every other type”

let’s take another example -

public class InnerType {
   public static class Internal<T> {}

   public static void main(String[] args) {

after running javac, we end up with two classes - InnerType.class and InnerType$Internal.class. looking at InnerType$Internal.class via javap -v, we see the class defined as:

public class InnerType$Internal<T extends java.lang.Object> extends java.lang.Object

if we try to display the class information like this:

public class InnerType {
   public static class Internal<T> {}

   public static void main(String[] args) {
      Internal<String> internal = new Internal<>();
      Class<?> classType = internal.getClass();

      System.out.println(classType + ", " + classType.getGenericSuperclass());

we get InnerType$Internal, with a superclass of java.lang.Object. now let’s try to modify the example slightly, and create an anonymous subclass of Internal, by doing this:

Internal<String> internal = new Internal<>(){
   /* we could override methods here if we wanted to */

by just making that change, the app now writes that the class is InnerType$1, with a generic superclass of InnerType.InnerType$Internal<java.lang.String>. this generic superclass is actually a parameterized type, so we can cast it and extract extra information by doing something like this:

ParameterizedType t =
   (ParameterizedType) classType.getGenericSuperclass();
System.out.println(t.getOwnerType() + ", " + t.getRawType() + ", " +

if we run this, we now get an owner type of InnerType, a raw type of InnerType$Internal, and the actual type arguments of java.lang.String.

moreover, if we run javap -v on InnerType$1, we see that the class is defined as:

final class InnerType$1 extends InnerType$Internal<java.lang.String>

what about TypeToken?

if we look back at the first Gson example, we notice the use of a TypeToken class provided by Gson. what does this class do? we care about two classes here, TypeToken, and $Gson$Types. looking at the constructor for TypeToken, we can see it does 3 things:

  1. calls a canonicalize method on the type
  2. gets the raw type
  3. calculates a hashcode

most importantly, the canonicalize method exists in $Gson$Types and returns a specific Type depending on the actual Type passed in - if it’s an array, for example, a GenericArrayTypeImpl is made. in the example above, a ParameterizedTypeImpl would be made, using the owner type, the raw type, and the actual arguments.

in this case, as callers of Gson’s api, we make a new TypeToken with our generic type parameters. internally, this generates a ParameterizedTypeImpl that can then be used within Gson to do the right thing during deserialization.


in summary, whereas erasure erases generic types at compile time, libraries like gson take advantage of the fact that some types erase to themselves to have access to the generic type at runtime.

3 things i learned about rxjava 2 subjects


sometime in late december or early january, i decided to write a blog post per month. since it’s january 31st, i figured i should write about something to avoid dropping the ball so early in the year.

i introduced one of my friends to rxjava 2 not too long ago - his initial reaction was, “what? why would i want this?” - a few days later, it turned to, “hey, this is pretty cool!” - a few days after that, i learned several things from him as he ran into issues while migrating parts of his code.

consequently, i wanted to share these things, as they weren’t perfectly obvious to me (though in retrospect, they perhaps should have been).

also, i do realize that many consider subjects as “the mutable state of the reactive world” that should be avoided, but sometimes, they are a pretty good tool to use, especially when an entire code base is not yet reactive.

retry doesn’t actually retry

consider this code:

  public void testRetry() {
    TestObserver<Integer> ts = new TestObserver<>();

    final boolean[] val = new boolean[] { true };
    Observable.just(1, 2, 3)
        .map(i -> {
          // fail only the first time that i = 2
          if (i == 2 && val[0]) {
            val[0] = false;
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("throw!");
          return i;

    assertThat(ts.values()).containsAllOf(1, 2, 3);

this test passes, and the values emitted are [1, 1, 2, 3]. i’ll come back to the repetition in a tiny bit. now consider if we make a small change to this code, so that it uses a subject instead:

  public void testRetrySubject() {
    TestObserver<Integer> ts = new TestObserver<>();
    Subject<Integer> subject = PublishSubject.create();

    final boolean[] val = new boolean[] { true };
        .map(i -> {
          if (i == 2 && val[0]) {
            val[0] = false;
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("throw!");
          return i;


    assertThat(ts.values()).containsAllOf(1, 2, 3);

this test now fails, outputting only [1, 3]. so, why is this the case? the reason is that retry doesn’t actually retry anything - it just resubscribes to the source observable.

so if we think of the flow in this case, we call onNext with 1, which is observed by the subscriber. we then call it with 2, which fails because we throw an exception, and causes us to resubscribe. resubscribing to it doesn’t cause anything to emit. when 3 is passed in, we then observe it.

we can prove this by replacing the PublishSubject with a BehaviorSubject - doing so will result in [1, 2, 3] (because the subject caches the last onNext value it received, which was 2, so it gets replayed upon resubscribing).

note that the fact that retry resubscribes to the source observable is also why data can be repeated (as seen in the first example without subjects) - so when 2 fails the first time around, we re-subscribe, and thus get an onNext of 1, 2, and then 3, thus resulting in the repetition of the 1.

calling subscribeOn on a subject has no practical effect

this one was strange to me at first, but made sense once i realized that the reasoning for this was the same as that of why only the subscribeOn closest to the source matters - in summary, it’s because once onNext is called, downstream will receive the value on the same thread onNext was called on. thus, if you have subject.subscribeOn(, but call subject.onNext(value) from the main thread, the downstream will receive onNext on the main thread.

see also what i wrote here in the section about “only the subscribeOn closest to the source matters” (while that article was about rx1, it’s still relevant in rx2).

observeOn’s buffer and rebatchRequests

this comes from my friend’s question on stackoverflow. suppose we have a case where ui events trigger some work, but we only want to do that work if it’s not currently already being done - an example of this is a button that does work - and let’s suppose this takes a good amount of time, during which someone can click the button a few more times. if the work is being done, we don’t want to restart it, but if no work is being done, we can start doing the work.

my friend realized, “aha, this sounds like something that backpressure can solve, let me use BackpressureStrategy.LATEST!” - and so he implemented his solution to look something like this:

  public void testWork() {
    TestSubscriber<Integer> ts = new TestSubscriber<>();
    Subject<Integer> subject = PublishSubject.create();

        .map(ignored -> {
          System.err.println("before work");
          return ignored;
        .map(ignored -> {
          return ignored;

    for (int i = 0; i < 32; i++) {


this ended up failing, running the work 32 times - once for each and every emission of the subject. why?

as i learned from David’s answer, this is because observeOn has a buffer. since BackpressureStrategy.LATEST only keeps the latest value “if the downstream can’t keep up,” and since the default buffer size is 128 (unless it is overwritten by a system preference, in which case it must at least be 16), all the onNexts will be placed in a buffer until they can be sent downstream. in other words, backpressure doesn’t take effect here.

one solution i came up with based on this was replacing the first observeOn with observeOn(, false, 1) - this observeOn is called by the standard observeOn, with false for delayError, and bufferSize() for the buffer size. doing this results in the work only being done twice instead of 32 times. David said this would work, but would result in “time snapshots” as opposed to the latest event being processed (because as the worker was being processed, item 2 would be in observeOn’s queue, and would be sent downstream after the worker finishes - anything after 2 would be dropped until 2 is sent downstream).

David’s solution that actually gives you the latest was interesting - first, he used delay with 0ms as a means of switching threads without a buffer (i.e. .delay(0, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS, Schedulers.computation())). then, he calls .rebatchRequests(1).

rebatchRequests was added as an experimental operator in RxJava 1, and this was the first time i had seen it. from my understanding, this is like a valve of sorts - it requests n items from upstream (based on the parameter passed in to it) - once 75% of them have been emitted downstream, it will request another n items from upstream.

it’s easier to understand what this is really doing when we look at how it’s implemented -

    public final Flowable<T> rebatchRequests(int n) {
        return observeOn(ImmediateThinScheduler.INSTANCE, true, n);

hey, cool! it’s calling observeOn with a buffer size of n, which, in this case, is 1. ImmediateThinScheduler is a scheduler that runs things immediately on the current thread.

haramain updates

it’s been a while since i first wrote about Haramain. there have been some pretty massive updates recently that i wanted to briefly write about here.

an app for iOS

i’ve wanted to release an app for iOS for a long time now, and unfortunately never got around to doing so. i thought Haramain was a good candidate to be a first app, and so august 29th of this year, i finally released Haramain for iOS, which is my first iOS app (i’ve played with iOS before on many occasions, but this is the first app that i wrote end to end).

the iOS app features a new design by Ahmed Galal and most of the features found on Android (except autoplay, which insha’Allah should come in the future).

android updates

so the Android app also hasn’t seen updates for a while now, and with the iOS app out and with a new design, it was time to bring the new design to Android, with some modifications.

so today, i released an update to Haramain for Android. this new version features Ahmad’s new design. it also adds Chromecast support and support for Android 7.1 shortcuts.

future plans

insha’Allah in the future, we have a few other things planned - namely search, Arabic support, and lists of favorites. stay tuned!

rxjava and a synchronous main thread

not too long ago, someone pointed me to this blog post about keeping your main thread synchronous. it referenced Ray Ryan’s excellent talk about the matter. the talk and blog post lead me to a set of investigations, which prompted me to write this blog post.

quick note: why keep the main thread synchronous

if you are curious as to the kinds of problems that can occur if the main thread isn’t synchronous (or why it’s not synchronous when you use observeOn), see this post about the main thread for a good explanation.

the summary is that everytime you use, you post something to be run later, and you don’t have any guarantees as to when it will be run. a common case is when you schedule something to update the ui, but before it actually runs, an onDestroy comes in, causing the code to update the ui after the destruction of the activity.

in rx, specifically, observeOn(AndroidSchedulers.mainThread()) causes a handler.sendMessageDelayed (see, which could cause code to run at a point after we are thought to have unsubscribed, thus causing issues.

basic rules of rxjava threading

in many of the talks about rxjava1, we find a set of repeated rules about rxjava and threading:

  • rxjava is single threaded by default unless you explicitly ask it otherwise
  • subscribeOn only affects upstream
  • only the subscribeOn closest to the source matters
  • observeOn only affects downstream

while these are all true, there are a few minor points that were not immediately obvious to me early on about the first three, so i would like to elaborate a bit on those.

rxjava is single threaded by default

as long as you do not use observeOn, subscribeOn, or an operator that runs on a particular scheduler (ex timer), the callback will be receieved on the thread subscribe happened on.

subscribeOn only affects upstream

one subtle point - consider:

Observable.just(1, 2, 3)
    .subscribe(integer -> {
      Log.d(TAG, "got value on " + Thread.currentThread().getName());

despite subscribeOn only affecting upstream, this will always print the result on an io thread, irrespective of the thread on which we called this code. this is because subscribeOn subscribes to the observable on the thread passed in, which means that onNext will be called on that particular thread.

only the subscribeOn closest to the source matters

consider this code:

Observable.just(1, 2, 3)
    .doOnSubscribe(() -> 
        Log.d(TAG, "subscribe to just on " +
    .filter(integer -> integer % 2 == 0)
    .doOnSubscribe(() ->
        Log.d(TAG, "subscribe to filter on " +
    .subscribe(integer -> {
      Log.d(TAG, "got value on " + Thread.currentThread().getName());

running this example results in:

D/are: subscribe to filter on RxComputationScheduler-1
D/are: subscribe to just on RxIoScheduler-2
D/are: got value on RxIoScheduler-2

if, however, we changed doOnSubscribe with doOnNext in the code block above, we’d instead get:

D/are: onNext from just with RxIoScheduler-2
D/are: onNext from just with RxIoScheduler-2
D/are: onNext from filter with RxIoScheduler-2
D/are: got value on RxIoScheduler-2
D/are: onNext from just with RxIoScheduler-2

the caveat here is that the subscribeOn closest to the source is the one that determines which thread onNext will get called on (but subscriptions still happen on the thread specified by subscribeOn).

the reason for this is that each subscribeOn subscribes to the upstream observable on that particular thread.

let’s take an example - given:


let’s break down what happens:


  • Observable.just(1,2,3) internally calls Observable.create(new OnSubscribeFromArray()), so we have an Observable which will call OnSubscribeFromArray on subscribe.

  • we then call subscribeOn(, which calls Observable.create(new OperatorSubscribeOn(this, scheduler)), where this is the Observable from above, and scheduler is io. In other words, we now have an Observable, which has an onSubscribe that will subscribe to the Observable from the step above on the io thread.

  • we then call subscribeOn(Schedulers.computation()), which calls Observable.create(new OperatorSubscribeOn(this, scheduler)), where this is the Observable from above, and scheduler is computation.

  • finally, we call subscribe, which calls Observable.subscribe, which calls the method from OperatorSubscribeOn from point 3 - this subscribes to the Observable from point 2 on the computation thread. Ultimately, this causes the OperatorSubscribeOn from point 2 to be called, which then calls subscribe to the Observable from point 1 on the io thread. OnSubscribeFromArray produces values on the same thread, thus causing all the items to be emitted on the io thread.

see the source for subscribeOn for more details.

running things in parallel with rxjava

in order to run things in parallel, we use flatMap or concatMap, with multiple observers that can then subscribeOn whatever scheduler they want to. the difference between concatMap and flatMap is that flatMap can emit items out of order, whereas concatMap will always emit items in order.

so what does this do? flatMap is essentially a merge, which “combines multiple Observables into one by merging their emissions”2. note that the observable contract stipulates that “Observables must issue notifications to observers serially (not in parallel).” this means that onNext will not be called concurrently, and part of merge’s job is to make sure that onNext is only called by one thread at a time.

for more on this, see Thomas Nield’s article about achieving parallelization, and also, see David Karnok’s article about FlatMap.

special thanks to Michael Evans for proofreading this.

  1. both of the aforementioned talks are definitely worth watching if you haven’t already seen them! [return]
  2. quote from rx merge docs [return]

rtl on Android

i gave my first talk at droidcon sf this year. the talk was about RTL on Android. check it out if you haven’t already (the slides are here).

on LinearLayout measures

seeing that LinearLayout is one of the most often used ViewGroup types in Android development, i wanted to write a little bit about how LinearLayout measures its children (this was also inspired by Sriram’s post about Custom ViewGroups).

tldr; (key takeaways that this post will discuss):

  1. a (non-nested) LinearLayout will measure each non-hidden child either 1x, 2x, or 3x (gone views aren’t measured).
  2. whenever possible, set android:baselineAligned to false, especially when using weights.
  3. in a horizontal LinearLayout with wrap_content height, avoid setting any of the children’s heights to match_parent. conversely, in a vertical LinearLayout with wrap_content width, avoid setting any of the children’s widths to match_parent.

LinearLayout and child measurement

a (non-nested) LinearLayout will end up measuring each non-hidden view either 1x, 2x, or 3x. here are the rules:

  1. a View with android:visibility="gone" won’t be measured.
  2. a View will default to being measured once, unless more measurements are necessary (see rules 3 and 4).
  3. when the non-android:orientation direction of the LinearLayout is wrap_content and its child’s is match_parent, the child will be measured an extra time.
    • in a horizontal LinearLayout with wrap_content height, a child with match_parent height will be measured an extra time.
    • in a vertical LinearLayout with wrap_content width, a child with match_parent width will be measured an extra time.
  4. a child with a non-zero android:layout_weight will be measured an extra time if:
    • in a horizontal LinearLayout with non-wrap_content width, android:layout_width is not 0dp, (or is 0dp, but the LinearLayout doesn’t have android:baselineAligned="false" set).
    • in a vertical LinearLayout with non-wrap_content height, if android:layout_height is not 0dp.

the first two rules are fairly straight forward - for optimization purposes, a view that is set to gone will not be measured. secondly, every view must be measured at least once, so the default is that each view will be measured once, unless something causes it to have to measure more.

the width/height mismatch measure

consider a horizontal LinearLayout with two TextView children.

if the height of this LinearLayout is match_parent or a fixed value (ex 32dp), then measuring the height of the children is easy:

  • if the child has a fixed height, use that
  • if the child’s height is match_parent, then pass in the LinearLayout’s height with a MeasureSpec mode of EXACTLY.
  • if the child’s height is wrap_content, then pass in the LinearLayout’s height with a MeasureSpec mode of AT_MOST.

but what if the LinearLayout’s height is wrap_content? in this case, measuring the child is sometimes easy:

  • if the child has a fixed height, use that.
  • if the child has a height of wrap_content, pass a height MeasureSpec with a mode of AT_MOST and the available space to the LinearLayout.

if, however, the child has a height of match_parent, what we’re really saying is, “i want this view to have the same height as the LinearLayout.”

so what is the height of the LinearLayout? in the case where the LinearLayout’s height is set to wrap_content, the height is not known until each child has been measured (the height MeasureSpec received in onMeasure by the LinearLayout itself will be AT_MOST with however much space can be taken up by it).

consequently, children with a match_parent height also have to wait until the LinearLayout’s height is determined, and then measured again in accordance to that height.

note that the same is true for vertical LinearLayouts when they have wrap_content widths and children with match_parent widths.

(note that in, you’ll see forceUniformHeight and forceUniformWidth in measureHorizontal and measureVertical, respectively, being called at the end of the measure cycle when they need to be).


here’s an example that shows this effect - compare:

the right square in the first image is measured twice, because its height is set to match_parent when the LinearLayout’s height is set to wrap_content. if these match (ex both are wrap_content, both are match_parent, or one of them is fixed), we eliminate this problem1.

note that sometimes, you really have to use match_parent - for example, if the right side had a background and we wanted it to be exactly the same height as the left side, we have no choice but to use match_parent for the height (unless we can specify a fixed height or change the parent, etc).


setting a non-zero android:layout_weight may cause a View to be measured an extra time.

first, let’s consider when a non-zero android:layout_weight does not cause an extra measure pass -

for a vertical LinearLayout:

  • when the LinearLayout has a layout_height of wrap_content, there is no extra measure (this makes sense, since there is no “extra space” to divvy up amongst the views at the end, since we’re telling the LinearLayout to only be as large as its content).
  • when the layout_height of the child is 0dp.

for a horizontal LinearLayout:

  • when the LinearLayout has a layout_width of wrap_content, there is no extra measure.
  • when the layout_width of the child is 0dp, and the LinearLayout itself has android:baselineAligned="false" set.

in all other cases, the view with non-zero layout_weight will be measured an extra time.


the documentation for android:baselineAligned says:

When set to false, prevents the layout from aligning its children’s baselines. This attribute is particularly useful when the children use different values for gravity. The default value is true.

this is generally useful for aligning text with the same gravity. consider:

and compare it to:

here’s a more visual representation:

so when can you turn it off?

  1. if the children of the LinearLayout don’t need to be baseline aligned (i.e. are not TextViews or ImageViews with setBaseline or setBaselineAlignedBottom set, etc).
  2. if the children are TextViews but all have different alignments anyway.
  3. if it doesn’t matter (for example in the above screenshots, because both sides use English text with the same text size, the images are identical - if they were different languages, or if the text size of one was different than the other, the two would definitely be different).

here’s a visual representation of how baselineAlignment can make a difference:

why does this matter?

why write a blog post about this, and why does it matter? there are 2 main reasons - first, given the popularity of LinearLayout within most apps, its important to know how it works to have great performing apps.

secondly, measures can be expensive - and avoiding extra work is always great! this is especially relevant when you consider nested LinearLayouts - let’s suppose that a nested LinearLayout will be measured 3 times, and has children that it would ordinarily measure 3x - those children now get measured 72 times!

  1. note that this is only true for a non-nested LinearLayout - if instead, the aforementioned layout is the child of a vertical LinearLayout with a height of wrap_content, the TextView with match_parent height will still get measured twice, because the extra measure at the end happens when a child is match_parent and the parent’s height MeasureSpec is not EXACTLY (in this case, its AT_MOST due to wrap_content). [return]
  2. in theory, they’d get measured 9 times, but the variation in the specs that are passed in to the nested LinearLayout let some of the views skip extra measures, especially in the first 2 measure passes. [return]